Doctrina, Revista 113

Autos armados artesanalmente

La Ley 26.938, por medio de su reglamentación, permite la producción y circulación de automóviles particulares fabricados de manera artesanal o en baja serie. Esta reglamentación se produce median-te el Decreto Reglamentario 304/2018, por el cual se permite circular y patentar autos de baja serie fabricados en nuestro país.
¿En qué contexto nace la necesidad de crear está nueva legislación? Argentina históricamente cuenta con un legado rico y excelso en lo que respecta a la industria automovilística; de aquí han salido referentes a nivel mundial. Junto con los avances e innovaciones tecnológicas en materia automotriz, nuestro país adquirió una valoración en los mercados más exigentes del mundo, inclusive en aquellos de van-guardia tecnológica, posibilitando la apertura de un mercado externo de nuestros productos respondiendo a los más altos estándares de calidad.
Sin duda, esta situación no ha sido pasada por alto por parte de los legisladores quienes han promovido este proyecto, hoy convertido en ley, y en la sazón de este orden de ideas también han avizorado la creación de miles de puestos de trabajo especializado, que le darán un nuevo impulso necesario en esta área tan determinante en la industria automotriz de nuestro país.

Ahora bien, vamos a adentrarnos en algunas de las implicancias que tiene esta reglamentación, pero es necesario destacar que, por tratarse de vehículos de baja serie, estos tenían prohibido la circulación por el país como también que solo se producían para ser exportados.
Qué es lo que dice la ley:

1) Por un lado, autoriza la circulación de los vehículos de baja serie y la producción de estos para uso particular.
2) Se crean cinco categorías de autos fabricados artesanalmente o en series reducidas: ARR1, ARR2, AIO, AR1 Y AR2.
3) ARR1, automotor reproducción son aquellos automotores fabricados como copia fiel de un automotor cuyo modelo tenga 30 años o más de antigüedad. Podrán circular por todo el país.
4) ARR2, automotor replica consiste en la fabricación de una réplica “no fiel” de un automotor cuyo modelo tenga 30 años o más de antigüedad. Estos vehículos pueden llegar a tener cambios en su estructura y mecánica. Cada fabricante autorizado podrá elaborar 100 unidades por año.

5) AIO, se trata de la fabricación de un automotor inédito y original compuesto por una estructura, una carrocería y una mecánica original. También con libre circulación por todo el país y 100 unida-des fabricadas por el comerciante.
6) AR1, automotor reformado es aquel vehículo que está registrado en el Registro Nacional de la Pro-piedad del Automotor, el cual sufre cambios en su estructura, mecánica, ya sea aumentando o disminuyendo su potencia. Solo se pueden producir 50 unidades por año. Estos vehículos no pueden circular por autopistas. Su velocidad máxima es de 60 km por hora.
7) AR2, automotor restaurado, estos también están registrados, tienen una antigüedad mayor a 30 años y vuelven a su estado original de fabrica-ción. Se aceptan de manera excepcional cambios en la mecánica cuando sea imposible acceder a repuestos originales. Cada fabricante podrá producir un máximo de 25 unidades al año.

Todas estas categorías de vehículos deben estar en condiciones de seguridad, tal cual como lo disponga la Agencia de Seguridad Vial.
El fabricante o restaurador debe estar inscripto ante el Registro de Fabricantes de Automotores Artesana-les, nomina que estará bajo la órbita de la Secretaria de Industria dependiente del Ministerio de la Producción. Para ello, es necesario que el fabricante cuente con un ingeniero mecánico o industrial a los fines de llevar a cabo dicha tarea.
Con respecto a los certificados de fabricación, los fabricantes deberán emitir dicho certificado, cuyo modelo debe ser aprobado por la Dirección Nacional de Registros de la Propiedad del Automotor. Ese certificado deberá contener la marca, modelo, tanto de la estructura como de la carrocería, tipo de auto-motor y motor.
Estos autos, contemplados como artesanales, solo podrán ser conducidos por personas mayores de 21 años. Dichos vehículos no podrán ser usados con fines profesionales, es decir para carga o pasajeros, sino solamente con fines particulares.
En lo que respecta a la revisación técnica, la ley establece que todos los automotores que están referenciados en ella deberán realizar la Revisación Técnica de manera anual. La misma será llevada a cabo por un ingeniero mecánico o industrial.
Ahora bien, ¿estos vehículos pueden llevar consigo piezas usadas al momento de su armado? La respuesta es sí, pero siempre que se cumplan con ciertos requisitos. Estas piezas deben estar perfecta-mente identificadas conforme a lo establecido por la Ley 25.761, que establece que las autopartes deben ser adquiridas en los desarmaderos o comerciantes de autopartes debidamente inscriptos y que en las facturas o remitos que se otorguen a los efectos deberán constar los números identificatorios correspondientes.
Es necesario que estos vehículos, al momento de so-licitar la inscripción inicial, cuenten no solo con la revisación técnica correspondiente, sino también con el certificado de fabricación de automotor artesanal. Si la revisación técnica no se encuentra observada, el Registro Seccional correspondiente expedirá el tí-tulo del automotor, su cédula de identificación y las placas. Si el automotor no es habilitado para circular, luego de la revisación técnica, el registrador se limitará a entregar solamente el título del automotor.

Asimismo, al iniciarse la petición de la inscripción inicial de un automotor, si del certificado presentado no surgiera la correspondiente licencia para configuración de modelo (LCM) o la licencia de configuración ambiental (LCA), el usuario deberá acompañar, además de la documentación correspondiente, la certificación de seguridad vehicular que los organismos técnicos competentes establezcan.
Con respecto a las medidas de seguridad que de-ben tener estos vehículos, los mismos deberán llevar cinturones de seguridad de tres puntos para todos sus ocupantes. Por otro lado, estos vehículos podrán ser equipados, si los fabricantes así lo desearan, con frenos ABS y doble airbag frontal, pero esto no es obligatorio. A su vez todos los tipos de vehículos descriptos en la presente ley deberán respetar los límites máximos de emisiones de ruidos y de gases.
Por último, esta ley y su decreto reglamentario invitan a las provincias, a la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y municipalidades a adherirse a dichas medidas.

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